Hong Kong Water Supply – Shing Mun Reservoir
Tymon Mellor: The Shing Mun Valley Scheme was implemented in two stages. The First Section established a new water supply and distribution system including the first cross harbour pipeline. The Second Section provided for the construction of the Jubilee Reservoir with a capacity greater than the total existing storage and possibly “the highest in the British Empire” [i] along with new cross harbour pipelines.
Population Growth and Water Shortage
From its origins of remote fishing villages, Hong Kong Island and the subsequent larger colony grew at a staggering rate, both in terms of both percentage growth and absolute numbers. As noted in the 1925 Annual General Report[ii], “The Colony is the centre of an incessant flow of Chinese emigration and immigration”.
Based on the ten-year census returns, the population grew 37% between 1911 and 1921 and 34% between 1921 and 1931. However, within these numbers growths of 42% occurred on Hong Kong Island (1911-1921) and 113% for Kowloon (1921-1931). Over the two ten year periods, the population grew by 168,500 and 214,300 respectively, placing a huge strain on the existing water supply network.
|Hong Kong Population (‘000)|
|Hong Kong Island (‘000)||244.3||347.4||409.2|
|New Territories (‘000)||81.2||83.2||98.2|
Source – The Population of Hong Kong, Fan Shuh Ching, Table 4.1 (1974)
The growth in population was driven by events in southern China, notably the:
- 1911 the Chinese Revolution;
- 1927 the Northern Expedition;
- 1938 occupation of Guangzhou by the Japanese
As the population grew, so did the demand for water requiring additional storage and improved treatment and distribution. At first glance, it would seem the situation improved over the first 30 years of the twentieth century, with consumption on Hong Kong Island improving from 18.1 gallons per head per day to 28.3 gallons per head, a similar value to London at 30 gallons per head. What the numbers do not show is that after 1921, water supply restriction became an everyday part of daily life, with 1929 experiencing the “most severe periods of water shortage in its history”[iii]. Throughout that year, some form of water restriction was in-force on each day and even the Rider Mains were closed for 219 days of the year. The only source of water came from the street fountains or standpipes. Even these had restricted operating hours, limiting supply to only four hours, and the permanent water supply fell below 3 million gallons per day compared to an estimated demand of around 10 million gallons. Rains did eventually commence on the 12th June ending the drought. For the twelve months ending 30th June, 1929 the total rainfall of 946mm was 217mm lower than the lowest previously recorded in any 12 consecutive months.
|Hong Kong Island Annual Water Supply (million gallons)|
|Pok Fu Lam||284.4||350.6||357.44|
|Wong Nei Chong||44.4||115.6||100.27|
|Daily Supply million gallons||4.4||8.1||10.8|
Source – Public Works Reports 1911, 1921 and 1931
To supplement the limited supply, a number of emergency measures were implemented to secure new sources of water, and these included:
|Source||Period in Operation||Total Quantity Supplied||Remark|
|Tai Koo Refinery Supply||2nd Feb to 17th Aug||19.1 mil gal||A temporary connection was made to the supply main in North Point|
|Lai Chi Kok Water Boat Dock||21st Mar to 29th Jul||40.0 mil gal||Transported to tanks on the Praya by water boats|
|Tsuen Wan Stream||9th Jul to 29th Jul||19 mil gal||Transported to tanks on the Praya by water boats|
|Imported Supplies||8th Jun to 30th Jul||13.4 mil gal||From outports and Canton River Delta|
To improve the local water collection, several streams were diverted into Bowen Road and Pok Fu Lam conduits. A new catchwater, 1,370m long was constructed to feed the Tai Tam Tuk reservoir. Fresh water tanks were erected on the Praya between Douglas Street and Kennedy Town and on the Praya East Reclamation, and the 21 tanks provided an additional capacity to hold 1.05 million gallons with around half the water supply delivered by the water boats.
Kowloon was also hit by water shortages, with a reliable constant supply maintained for only 77 days during 1929. To mitigate the water shortage a number of measures were implemented including;
- New pipe to divert Shek Lai Pui stream water to the Kowloon Filter beds;
- Two small pumps installed in the Shing Mun Valley below Pineapple Pass to deliver additional water to the new supply conduit; and
- A portable fire pump was hired to pump water from Lai Chi Kok stream to the Kowloon Filter Bed.
Within this context of rising population and limited water supply something special was required, resulting in the Public Works Department developing the Shing Mun scheme and the proposal for a new reservoir, bigger than the total existing capacity of the colony, the Jubilee reservoir.
Shing Mun Scheme – Second Section
With the imminent completion of the First Section of the Shing Mun Scheme, and significant water shortages at that time, work commenced in 1929 on undertaking a detailed survey of the Shing Mun Valley in preparation for the development of the new reservoirs and the impounding dams.
With the updated site survey, the assistant director of Public Works, Mr R M Henderson updated the original scheme report and provided a recommendation for the Second Section works. This was submitted to the Colonial Secretary in London in May 1930[iv].
The report identified that with the completion of the First Stage in 1932 there would be a total supply capacity of 15.03 million gallons a day for Hong Kong Island and Kowloon. However, as forecast in the original 1928 justification for the Shing Mun Scheme, there would be a demand of 16.5 million gallons a day. Therefore, it was necessary to implement the second section to avoid further water shortages, and the works were estimated to cost $4.75 million for an additional four million gallons a day.
The original second section scheme proposed three new reservoirs and associated dams:
Dam no. 1, located close to the existing Shing Mun village with a capacity of 1,000 million gallons. Trial excavations indicated deep rock head on the west side and given the long length of the dam, it was concluded the solution was not as cost effective as Dam no. 2. It was not recommended.
Dam no. 2, was located where the Shing Mun River entered a steep gorge, but the ground conditions were not favourable as there were steep falls in the river bed, and the resulting reservoir would only have a capacity of 1,000 million gallons. Alternative dam alignments were explored with higher dams (alignments B, C and D) increasing the reservoir up to 2,000 million gallons.
The review indicated that it was more cost effective to provide a higher dam at the gorge site than construct the upper reservoir at Dam no. 1. With a 2,000 million gallon reservoir, this would provide 6.5 million gallons a day or an additional 4 million gallons a day, taking account of the existing Shing Mun supply provided in the First Stage.
The dam at site 2A, in one of the side valleys was also ruled out due to unfavourable ground conditions. Further boreholes at the site of the Gin Drinkers Bay reservoir site confirmed very deep rock head, making the site an undesirable location.
The report concluded that a dam on alignment D was the recommended arrangement with a forecast construction cost of $4,550,000 and this would provide a reservoir of 2,000 million gallons.
Introduction of The Consultant
The Hong Kong Colonial Government typically undertook the funding of water projects, with the design and implementation undertaken by the Public Works Department. This approach required all the design work to be undertaken within the colony but which limited the skill and experience available. In the past, the British Government had on occasion provided specialists to give guidance and advice, and given the scale of the proposed works, they insisted that an experienced consultant review the scheme.
Thus, in October 1930, the Colonial Office in London arranged for the firm of Sir Alexander Binnie, Son and Deacon to review Mr Henderson’s proposal, inspect the proposed dam site, and review the scheme for a fee of £1,500. Their representative, Mr H G F Gourley would visit Hong Kong in conjunction with a trip to Singapore[v].
Gorge Dam Site Selection
Arriving in Hong Kong in January 1931, Mr Gourley reviewed the situation and provided a report to the Colonial Government. This instigated a more detailed investigation into the ground conditions with the excavation of a trench along the proposed dam alignment. In October, 1931 Mr W J E Binnie arrived in the colony to review the exposed rock at the proposed foundation side. He recommended additional boreholes be drilled to understand the ground conditions at both the gorge and Pineapple Pass dam sites.
The Hong Kong Excavation Pile Driving and Construction Company was appointed in October 1931 to undertake the additional site investigation. By the end of 1931, four of the thirteen requested boreholes were completed. In 1932 a further eight boreholes were completed before the contractor went into liquidation, leaving the remaining five to be completed at the Pineapple Pass site. The new borehole information along with updated surveys for an access road to the gorge site were sent to the consultant in London.
Following the submission of Mr Gourley’s report in 1931, Sir Alexander Binnie Son & Deacon were appointed by the Secretary of State to design and supervise the works, and in October 1932 this was reported by the Mr Henderson, now the Director of Public Works to the Legislative Council[vi];
“The Crown Agents for the Colonies advised that the works were too large to be undertaken by the present staff of the Public Works Department and Messrs. Sir Alexander Binnie Son & Deacon have since undertaken to carry out the scheme on agreed terms. They will be entirely responsible for carrying out the whole work, both design and construction, for a fixed fee, which the Government considers reasonable; the Colony to pay all costs including staff, the engagement of which is limited by agreed conditions.”
The consultant mobilised a team under the direction of Mr G B Gifford Hull who arrived in Hong Kong in November 1932. His first task was to confirm the dam location and finalise the dam design. He also had to prepare construction methods, order equipment and prepare the necessary site facilities for the work force.
Rural village life in the early twentieth century had not changed in hundreds of years, and for the eight villages affected by the Shing Mun scheme, this was clearly a disaster for the village and their ancestors but on the other hand, it was also an opportunity to escape the remoteness of the area. The villages were all farmers, owning in total around 180 acres of agricultural land, 1,180 acres of forest rights and 42 acres of pineapples. They kept cows, pigs, grew rice and pineapples, the latter being a cash crop along with the sale of grass and firewood. It was a tough existence reliant on small terraces with poor yields[vii].
Most of the villages were not directly impacted by the scheme, but their continuing presence was a significant risk to the quality of the reservoir water. The daily human and animal activities were likely to risk polluting the water, thus all the villages within the water collecting grounds had to be relocated.
New land was found for the 855 villagers along with a payment of compensation for; preparation of the new village sites, construction of new wells, new dwellings, resumption of agricultural land, loss of trees and crops, travel expenses and fung shui consultation. The total cost of relocation came to $296, 898[viii].
The new sites for the village relocation’s were identified during 1926, and during 1929 work commenced on site preparation. However, difficulties were encountered with accommodating all the villagers’ requirements. As reported in 1929; “fung shui a pseudo-science which trivial as it may seem to Western eyes, has an all-important bearing in the question of selecting or forming a site for Chinese dwellings.”[ix] Following protracted negotiations over sites and compensation, the new villages were completed, and the residents were relocated. By the end of 1930 the old villages were empty and the buildings demolished.
The new residents immediately re-commenced farming, with the number of licences for cultivated pineapples rising from 230 to 327 and the area under cultivation increasing from 76 acres to 122 acres between 1931 and 1932. Unfortunately, an outbreak of cholera in 1932 required the introduction of regulations forbidding the sale of sliced fruit, the most common form of sales, and this resulted in the drop in price of the fruit from $4 to $2 a picul[x]. It was suggested that the provision of a canning factory would help the situation, but a review indicated that it would not be competitive with factories in Hong Kong, Kowloon and Canton.
Funding the Dam
The colonial economy of the 1920s and 1930s was one of struggle, as some years had a surplus but many years did not. The strikes and boycott of 1925 and 1926 resulted in a 50% drop in trade[xi]. The colony could not afford the cost of the full Shing Mun Scheme, so the Government would need to borrow the money.
In November 1926 negotiations commenced with the UK Government for a direct loan of £350,000 to cover the works. The UK Government was cautious in their response, and they wanted further information but indicated that there may be a solution with a repayment over 13 years. The option of raising money with public or private investors was also explored but was not as attractive[xii].
However, in 1934 the Hong Kong colonial government proposed the Hong Kong Dollar Loan Ordinance, allowing the issue of bonds for up to 25 million dollars (Mexican) to cover the cost of ongoing major infrastructure projects. These included:
|Aberdeen Valley Water Scheme||$2,576,000|
|Shing Mun Valley Water Scheme||$10,382,000|
|New Gaol at Stanley||$4,631,000|
|Tytam Tuk Catchwaters||$800,000|
|Air Port Development||$895,000|
|Redemption of HK 3.5% Inscribed Stock 1918/43||$3,400,000|
|Other Public Work||$416,000|
Gorge Dam Design
The original gorge dam design proposed by Mr Henderson followed the approach previously adopted in Hong Kong i.e. it would utilise a mass concrete core with a masonry dam structure. This would be located at the top of the gorge, before the river descended through a series of waterfalls. This design had been successfully used on all the recent Hong Kong dam structures. The initial site investigations indicated problems with the foundations but while further investigations were undertaken during 1932 a high masonry dam design was developed for the site. A review indicated that by raising the dam height from a top level of 182m to 190m, the reservoir capacity could be increased from 2,000 million gallons to 3,000 million gallons. This would also require raising the level of the dam at Pineapple Pass and an additional low dam.
The new boreholes undertaken in 1932 identified decomposed granite at a depth of 15m below the valley bottom of the proposed dam site. This decomposed material would provide a route for water to escape below the structure making it unsuitable for the site of the dam. In the summer of 1933 the dam location was moved down river, below the waterfalls where solid rock was exposed. This had the advantage of reducing the width of the dam but would require the structure to be another 12m higher to maintain the same final height[xiii], making it the highest dam in the British Empire.
For the new site, two dam configurations were explored; a gravity dam and a concrete arch dam. The former would be built using a concrete core to provide a water cut-off and rock fill to resist the water pressure. The concrete arch dam utilised a curved concrete structure to resist the water load and required significantly less construction material making it cheaper and faster to construct. However, it was difficult to design, but following the construction of an experimental dam at Stevenson Creek in America, engineers had a much better idea on how the dam would respond to the water loads[xiv].
Three elements were considered in the choice for the final dam configuration; the need to eliminate cracks that water would pass through, the possibility of seismic action, and construction cost. As reported in 1937[xv], “a rock filled dam were considered and found to offer a preferable solution when the low labour costs in China and the fact that there was ample rock fill material at the site were taken into account”.
Thus, the rock gravity dam was adopted.
Major Construction Elements
The gorge dam consists of five elements:
A cut-off wall to prevent water leakage below and at the sides of the dam, identified as 1 on the diagram below;
An articulated concrete face to prevent water penetration, identified as 2 on the diagram below;
A concrete thrust block, identified as 3 on the diagram below to transmit the water pressure to the rock fill and to act as a retaining structure for the rock fill when the reservoir is drawn down;
The rock fill which provides the reaction to the water pressure, identified as 4 on the diagram below; and
A sand wedge, identified as 5 on the diagram below to ensure even pressure transmission to the rock fill.
To allow the construction of the dam within the existing river, a diversion tunnel was required to accommodate the water flows until the dam was ready. The diversion tunnel required the construction of a 4.5m diameter tunnel 300m long through the competent rock. The tunnel would also be utilised in the completed design for overflow and for cleaning out silt in the reservoir.
An octagonal valve tower was provided where water could be drawn from the reservoir at different levels through into 0.76m pipes in a 1.2m supply pipe. Float pipes were provided for the recording of the reservoir water level on a circular scale. Access to the tower was provided with a lattice girder steel bridge.
As with all reservoirs, the design of the dam needs to deal with flood waters and avoid over-topping of the structure. Previously in Hong Kong this had been accommodated through the provision of a weir in the dam structure, allowing water to flow over the dam in a control location and condition. The designers of the gorge dam were concerned that this could not be achieved economically due to the form of the construction and the height of the structure. There was concern that the water dropping from such a height could undermine the dams foundations. Thus, the solution was to introduce a circular bell-mouth weir, independent of the dam and six automatic siphons.
The use of the bell-mouth weir was “somewhat unusual” and the designers decided to undertake modelling to confirm the best shape of the structure, the capacity of the bell-mouth and the operation of the discharge tunnel. Four sets of scale models between 1 to 19 and 1 to 43. 5 were constructed to establish the optimum arrangement, which was a bell-mouth 22.6m wide reducing to a 4.6m wide tunnel.
Six siphons were located in a solid portion of the thrust-block on the east side of the dam. A reinforced concrete curtain was constructed in front of the siphons to provide a stilling basin to minimise waves and the associated gulping effect. The discharge tunnel for the siphons took the water to one of the upper levels of the quarry used to source the rock fill material, before channelling the water clear of the dam toe and allowed to water fall into the valley below.
Tough Working Conditions
While the final location of the dam was being finalised, from December 1932 work commenced on the building the access road, camp construction for the workers, water supply, sanitation, anti-malarial work, quarry development, and erection of plant and machinery.
Malaria infection was a significant problem in the early days of the project. During construction of the access road in 1933 on any day, around 12% of the workforce was affected[xvi]. The University of Hongkong Medical Department under Dr Wellington took responsibility for investigation and research into addressing the Malaria problem. Amongst the solutions developed it was recommended to drain the 986 acres around the dam site requiring the construction of 35km of land drains along with oiling of water channels. Around 200 labourers were employed to construct and maintain 11.7km of subsoil land drains and 8.1km of concrete channel[xvii]. With these and the use of mosquito nets, the rate of infection dropped to 0.2%[xviii].
The site had a workforce of around 2,500 along with European staff, the workers were housed on site in wooden dormitory huts with a detached latrine known as Coolie Lines. The European staff were also housed in quarters of a timber construction.
With the dam location confirmed, towards the end of 1933 a start was made on the excavation for the dam foundations and on the diversion tunnel.
By early 1934 the key construction plant was on site, including two aerial carriers, one for shifting stone from the quarry to the crushers and the other conveying up to 5 tons of concrete from the batching plant to the dam site. Excavation of the dam foundations was completed in March 1934 allowing the casting of the dam foundation to commence before the end of the month[xix].
The plan was to construct the dam within four years, limiting concrete pours to around 380m3 to avoid thermal cracking[xx]. However, good progress was achieved and on the afternoon of the 2nd of September 1935, with over 50% of dam construction completed, the Governor, Sir Thomas Southorn ceremoniously pressed a switch closing the scour pipe valve and commenced the impounding of water. With the dam at a height of 50m of a total 85m it had the capacity to impound some 500 million gallons[xxi].
Construction of the dam was substantially complete by the end of 1936, and a formal completion ceremony was held on the 31st January 1937, where the Governor formally accepted at 85m the “highest dam in the Empire” by unveiling an engraved tablet. The project was completed a year ahead of programme and at a cost of around $8,000,000.
The new supply was named the Jubilee Reservoir, celebrating the Silver Jubilee of King George V in 1935, but over the years, the name Shing Mun Reservoir has taken hold.
The completed dam was 85m above the original stream bed and 213m wide at the road way. The construction required:
Excavation and concrete in cut-off trench 15,000 m3
Concrete in dam 100,000m3
Rock fill 370,000m3
In addition to the Gorge dam, the team constructed the Pineapple Pass dam, at 27.4m high and 143m long along with an earth embankment at “Low Gap”.
Tragically, twenty six workers had died during the construction in a variety of industrial accidents including drowning in flash floods, buried in landslides and falling from heights.
The single gravity filter at Shek Lai Pui was supplemented with a second unit in 1932 in a building mirroring the first. A third filtration unit was installed in 1936.
Second & Third Harbour Crossing
In 1933 preliminary investigation works commenced along with the preparation of a budget estimate for a second cross harbour pipe line. In the following year, tenders were invited for the supply of materials needed for the new crossing. It became apparent that the necessary materials could be locally sourced resulting in considerable savings. In August 1934 a contract was awarded to Hume Pipe (Far East) Ltd for the fabrication of 30m long steel pipes and provision of concrete products. Later in November a contract to lay the cross harbour pipe line was awarded to Netherlands Harbour Works Company, but work was delayed awaiting the arrival of the necessary flexible pipe joints from England.
With the arrival of the ball and socket joints in January 1935, laying of the pipe line commenced on the 14th January 1935 and was completed by the 22nd March, 1935. With the completion of the end connections in early April 1935, testing of the main was successfully completed by the end of April, 1935. Protective measures were then implemented including setting of concrete anchor blocks and levelling of the harbour bed with rubble. All works were completed by the end of May and the pipe was commissioned on the 18th June, 1935.
The new line consisted of a 460mm welded steel pipe with socket joints. The pipe had a concrete internal lining to prevent corrosion and was wrapped in a composite of bitumastic solution and hessian cloth, covered with a 100mm wide spiral brass tape to protect the steel from the seawater.
During an August typhoon in 1936, a dragging ships anchor ripped away a section of pipe, the first such incident for either cross harbour pipes. The line was repaired and back in service by the end of September, 1936.
Even with the second cross harbour main, a continuous water supply on Hong Kong Island remained a problem and the condition of the original pipe crossing was also a concern. Thus, in 1937 work commenced on the installation of two new 530mm pipe crossings.
The original 300mm pipe line, installed in 1930 was reaching the end of its operational life. The steel pipeline was suffering from sea-water corrosion, the original hessian wrapped bitumen coated cloth had deteriorated in the harsh marine environment. Trials were undertaken in 1937 to develop an improved pipe coating for the next harbour pipe line. The Hume Pipe Company demonstrated a suitable arrangement by surrounding a steel pipe with a 64mm of concrete vibrated concrete[xxii].
In November 1937, an order was placed with the Newport and South Wales Tube Company for mild steel pipes, with Glenfield and Kennedy for valves and joints, and Weston and Company for a pipe cutting machine.
With an agreed harbour crossing alignment, in October 1937 the Government Grab Dredger no. 2 and no. 1 were mobilised to excavate 7,610m3 of the seabed for the new pipe line.
Preparation of the sea bed was slowed by the presence of boulder clay, blasting using dynamite and gelatine was unsuccessful and the material was only cleared with the use of powerful water jets[xxiii]. The Netherlands Harbour Works Company prepared the pipe bed foundation and protective mound. Installation of the two 530mm internal diameter pipes was undertaken by Messrs Woo Hing and was completed on the 18th May, 1939 after 78 days of working. Following completion of the terminal connections and testing, the pipe lines entered service on the 30th October, 1939. The two new lines providing a new supply capacity of 9.67 million gallons a day.
The 460mm second pipe crossing only installed four years earlier, was lifted and reconditioned for use elsewhere. The original 300mm was abandoned and was used as additional protection for the new mains.
With the completion of the Shing Mun Second Stage, work commenced on forecasting the future water demand and identifying possible new sources. A new report[xxiv] was published in 1937 identifying the colony had a water supply capacity of 23.28 million gallons a day with a consumption demand of 22.5 million gallons a day. New resources were required to meet the forecast demand of 32.2 million gallons a day by 1941.
The designer of the Jubilee reservoir advised that with an extension of the existing catchwaters an additional 4.25 million gallons a day could be secured, sufficient to meet the 1941 demand. This was implemented, but it would be the last major works before the Second World War was about to change everything.
– The Engineer, https://www.gracesguide.co.uk/Main_Page
– South China Morning Post
– Water for a Barren Rock: 150 Years of Water Supply in Hong Kong Ho Pui Yin. Translated By Lui Yuen Chung
[i] Dr C A Middleton Smith, The Hong Kong Centenary and Applied Science, The Engineer 7th March, 1941
[ii] Hong Kong Annual General Report For 1925, Preface
[iii] Public Works Report 1929
[iv] Shing Mun Works Scheme, Harold T Creant, 8th May 1930
[v] Letter From Crown Agents to Messrs Sir Alex Binnie Son & Deacon, 13th October, 1930 CO128/526
[vi] Mr R M Henderson, HK Legislative Council, 6 October 1932
[vii] Women and Chinese Patriarchy: Submission, Servitude and Escape, https://books.google.com.au/books?redir_esc=y&id=f5o_t7VxHYAC&q=shing+mun#v=snippet&q=shing%20mun&f=false
[viii] Move of the Shing Mun Villages, J A Fraser District Officer North, 9th January 1928
[ix] Report on the New Territories for the Year 1929, J A Fraser 14th March 1930
[x] Report on the New Territories for the Year 1932, E H Williams 30 March 1933
[xii] Letter from Crown Agent For The Colonies, 14 December 1926, CO129/495
[xiii] The Gorge Dam, William James Eames Binnie and Harold John Frederick Gourley, ICE Paper no 5188 March 1939
[xiv] The Shing Mun Dam, Interesting Constructional Facts Given by Resident Engineer, Address to Local Rotarians, SCMP 15 March 1933
[xv] The Engineer, The Shing Mun Dam, Hong Kong 22 January 1937
[xvi] Dr C A Middleton Smith The Hong Kong Centenary and Applied Science, The Engineer 7th March 1941
[xvii] Dr A R Wellington, War on Malaria at Shing Mun, Preventing Spread, SCMP 13 October 1933.
[xviii] Shing Mun Dam, Giant Engineering Feat Under Way, Malaria Incidence Now Negligible, SCMP 7 February 1934
[xix] The Jubilee Reservoir, Details of Big Engineering Work at Shing Mun Valley, To-Day’s Official Opening, SCMP 30 January 1937
[xx] The Shing Mun Dam, Interesting Constructional Facts Given by Resident Engineer, Address to Local Rotarians, SCMP 15 March 1933
[xxi] Gorge Dam Opened, SCMP 3 September, 1935
[xxii] Report of the Director pf Public Works For the Year 1937
[xxiii] Report of the Director pf Public Works For the Year 1939
[xxiv] Report on the Water Supply of Hong Kong, Mr W Woodward, 30th November 1936
This article was first posted on 5th May 2020.
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