HK Industry during World War Two – Transport

Contributors:

JB Julia Bradshaw
PC Philip Cracknell
HF Hugh Farmer
FCM Fung Chi Ming
KCM: Kwong Chi Man
IDJ
CM Craig Mitchell
ER Elizabeth Ride
Lawrence Tsui
YHT Yiu Hon Tse, Joseph

Ambulances

During the Japanese occupation, most of the ambulances were appropriated and taken to Japan. “Canvas cars” were once again relied upon.

In 1944, [The] Hong Kong Doctors’ Association provided two ambulances, one serving Hong Kong Island and the other in Kowloon, which could be called to service by telephone. However, the service was only maintained for a short while. (Cheng 2009)

Buses

General

ER: BAAG Report KWIZ #85, 9.2.45.

 “Increase in bus fares:  Effective from today [15.12.44], the fares for the bus services in Hongkong and Kowloon have been increased, it was officially announced by the respective bus companies today.
The revised charges are: Hongkong services: From Tunglowan to Pedder St – Y4 per person.  From Pedder St to Western St – Y3 per person.   The fare to Motohonkon [sic] remains unchanged.
Kowloon services:  From Tsimshatsui Ferry Wharf to Kowloon Tong – Y3.50 per person.   From Mongkok to Sheungshui via Tsun Wan, Chingshan and Un Long – Y15 per person for each section, or Y60 for the whole journey.” 

The Kowloon Automobile Transportation Company

ER: BAAG Report KWIZ #70, 13.10.44.

“To facilitate communication, the Kowloon Automobile Transportation Co has restored the bus service between the former Police Training School and Tsimshatsui.  The time table has been rearranged so as to fit that of the ferry.  10 buses start from Waterloo Rd between 7.55 a.m. and 7.20 p.m., 7 from the former Police Training School between 8.30 a.m. and 6.12 p.m., and 17 from Tsimshatsui between 8.15 a.m. and 7.40 p.m.” (BAAG Source Hongkong Yat Po)
” The bus service on the island will be resumed as from 18th August.  In the forenoon, one bus will run from Causeway Bay to Aberdeen via Pedder St and Western St, and return.  In the afternoon, the same bus will run from Pedder St to Aberdeen via Western St, returning to Causeway Bay.  In the city area buses run to and from Pedder St and Causeway Bay eleven times a day.  The fares from Pedder St to Causeway Bay are Y2.50 per head, and from Pedder St to Western St Y1.50 .”  (BAAG Source Heung To Yat Po).

The Kowloon Motor Bus Company

HF: By the time of the Japanese occupation in December 1941, KMB had 140 buses operating on 17 routes. With its buses requisitioned by the occupying force, KMB operations came to a virtual standstill, with just two routes still running in 1944. By February 1946, in order to resume a full service to the community as soon as possible, KMB converted some second-hand military trucks to carry passengers. At the same time, the class seating was abolishedKMP Company website timeline

Cheng 2006

Cheng 2006

Carts

“During the Japanese occupation, because of the scarcity of motor vehicles and diesel, wooden carts were heavily relied upon for the transportation of goods. There were a number of transportation companies using wooden carts, the larger scale ones having in their possession over 100 carts of various sizes. A large cart could accommodate 2,000 catties or more.

Wooden carts could also be used as rubbish carts or for the disposal of faeces. A cart could carry over forty piculs and needed eight or nine men to move it. The carts used as ambulances were later converted into the so-called yan lik fan bo che (man-powered canvas carts.) Besides transporting the sick and the wounded, these carts were also used for removing corpses”. (p 11,Cheng)

They were so simple, and given the adverse conditions in Hong Kong during this period, must have been made here. I wonder where and whom?

Fung Chi Ming adds:  Regarding wooden carts and “yan lik fan bo che” which is Cantonese (The Putonghua romanization, official language in China, is: “ren li fan bu che” (in Chinese: 人力帆布車), which literally means man-powered canvas carts).  This is mentioned in one of the wartime newspapers, details below.

When I did a research on the HK rickshaw years ago, I found a lot of wartime newspapers.  I kept many newspaper clippings.  In the “Around Town” column of an English-language Japanese-controlled newspaper in HK during World War II, known as Hongkong News (dated 9 September 1943) there is a statement that goes: “In order to fall into line with Government’s policy of saving fuel and gasoline, the Health Department has temporarily withdrawn the use of the ambulance. Canvas hand-carts have, however, been put into use and the public should not be much inconvenienced by this temporary measure.”  I didn’t carry out detailed research into the history of hand-carts in HK, but it seems that they were locally made in HK using local materials.  As you said, they seem such simple machines, much simpler than rickshaws; they were probably made by the rickshaw makers’ shops.

Wooden Carts, Cheng 2006

Cheng, 2006

Hand cart during Japanese occupation

Fung Chi Ming has found the above 1942 photo, which may show a wooden hand-cart to the right of the right hand soldier’s  head (photo taken from Cheng 2006). It is not however, as CM admits, very distinct.

ER: I have found two more reports in the BAAG Intelligence summaries on the use of handcarts during the occupation.
22 September 1944: “Since the tram service ceased to operate, handcarts have become a popular means of transport. At first only a few were running, but now the number has increased to more than 100. Most of them run between Causeway Bay and the Western Market. Yesterday a few carts were sent to Quarry Bay and there was a number of passengers. It is now learned that if the results are good, more carts will be available for this route. Source: Heung To Yat Po”
29 September 1944: “As a result of the increase in the price of rice, coupled with the high cost of other daily foodstuffs, the hand-cart coolies have found it necessary to increase their fare from 50 sen to MY1 per station as from yesterday. Source: Hongkong News.”

Fanling Golf Course Airstrip 1949

Michael Mabb (taken from Gwulo.com) : Having defeated the British in December 1941, the Japanese army used the golf club buildings until their own surrender in August 1945. The buildings (and the course) seem then to have lain derelict until 1949 when 1st Independent Field Squadron Royal Engineers arrived from Malaya and based a platoon in the spartan Fanling G C outbuildings (but at least there was a roof and windows which was a serious step up from living in tents). We built an airstrip on the 9th fairway to service the very light 2-seater spotter aircraft of the Royal Artillery who were to patrol the nearby Chinese frontier. This was not as drastic an operation as it might sound : we bulldozed out a few bumps and then laid a flat heavy steel open-mesh through which the grass continued to grow (it was not playable of course).
http://gwulo.com/hong-kong-golf-club-fanling-course

Ferries, External out of Hong Kong

LT: According to the Kweilin Intelligence Report of the BAAG KWIZ No. 68 in September 1944:
Agents reported the steamer ‘Fat Shan’ (which operated between HK & Macao until sunk by a typhoon August 1971, killing many of its crew) was operating between HK & Canton during the War.  The ship belonged to the HK,Macao Canton Steamboat Co, was renamed NanKai 201 (South Sea).  Name was later changed to Koto Maru (HK Island Ship).  Sailings were advertised in the Hong Kong News.

Cheng 2006

Cheng 2006

Ferries, Internal within Hong Kong

General

Cheng 2006

Cheng 2006

ER: BAAG Report KWIZ #75, 17.11.44.
Ferry fares:  According to the Ferry Affairs Section of the Governor’s Office, passenger fares and luggage charges will be revised from 15th September as follows:

Fares – 1st class 80 sen, 2nd class 20 sen.
Luggage – MY2 per piece.
Vehicles – Bicycle MY2, Motor-cycle MY5.

Advertising in the wharf  – MY100 per advertisement per quarter.

The following points are to be noted:  1.  No vehicles except bicycles and motor-cycles are allowed.  2. No luggage other than handbags and those to be used on the trip will be transported, unless they are for military use, or special permits have been obtained.

Hongkong and  Yaumati Ferry Company

JB: Referring to New Zealand born Harry Kin Hong Long who arrived in HK in 1932 to work for HKYFC “During the Second World War Harry joined the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Force (HKVDC) and in December 1941 he was busy moving ferries and boats to stop them falling into Japanese hands. On 15 December he had to scuttle many of the Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company’s boats which was a hard blow.”

HF: Sham Wai Chi’s 2007 thesis goes into some detail about what happened to the company during the Japanese occupation of HK, WW2  The History of Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited, 1923 to the 1970s

This includes the following: When the Japanese started to invade Hong Kong on 8th December, 1941, the British Colonial Government requisitioned the fleet of the HYF, which included thirty-one vessels, for assisting the British Army to transport the resources. Later the Japanese succeeded in occupying the New Territories and Kowloon Peninsula, and the British Army used the ferries of the HYF for retreating to Hong Kong Island. After retreating to Hong Kong Island, in order to defend the Island, the British Army ordered the HYF to sink a number of its ferries at different part of the coast of Hong Kong Island as barriers to prevent the landing of the Japanese Army…

Two weeks after the surrender of the British…the management of the HYF sent a representative to the Japanese Military Administrative Board to request the resumption of ferry service. The HYF told the Japanese authority that they had ten ferry vessels surviving so that they had the ability to resume service within three days…(11)

HF: At the end of the war, “out of 40 ferries only 5 were available for use”. (Ward)

JB: (see entry above)… “After the war he [Harry Kin Hong Long] worked hard to rehabilitate the ferry company’s fleet.”

Star Ferry, The

During the war years the Star Ferry was commandeered by the Japanese, and the Golden Star and Meridian Star were used to transport prisoners of war from Sham Shui Po to Kai Tak airport.
The Hong Kong Heritage Project blog

Fire Engines

In early December [1941] two fire engines from England were being shipped to Hong Kong. However, after Hong Kong fell into the hands of the Japanese, they were shipped to Tokyo instead and stationed there to protect the Japanese Palace during air raids. After World War Two, they returned to Hong Kong again.

All fire engines in the war had been painted grey. They were painted red again in 1947.

Horse-drawn Carriages

FCM: Here is a scan copy of Wah Kiu Yat Po dated 8 December 1942, which shows a photo of a horse carriage.  This is the only photo of wartime horse carriages which I have seen.

HF : FCM has written an article on this subject: Horse drawn carriages during the Japanese occupation, WW2

Horse-drawn Carriages 2 photo close up Fung Chi Ming

Cheng 2006

Cheng 2006

When Hong Kong fell into the hands of the Japanese…passenger carriages were restored to operate in Kowloon. A carriage could carry six to twelve people and goods carriages also resumed running. However, in 1944, as a consequence of the shortage of fodder, fewer horses were kept, service gradually declined and routes were cut. Total obsolescence of carriages by mid-November seemed inevitable. (Cheng 2009)

Kai Tak Airport

HF: (Notice at HK Heritage Museum)  During the Japanese occupation the walls of Kowloon Walled City were torn down and the stones used to extend Kai Tak.

IDJ has found the following information about American bombing missions on Kai Tak airport during the war
January 23, 1944 (14th AF) Twenty-eight P-40’s and nine B-25’s pound Kai Tek Airfield in the Hong Kong-Kowloon area.
February 11, 1944 (14th AF) Six B-25s, escorted by twenty US and Chinese P-40s, bomb the storage area at Kai Tek Airfield
August 31, 1944(14th AF) B-25 attack Kai Tek Airfield
September 1, 1944 (14th AF) Twelve B-25s bomb Kai Tek Airfield
December 22, 1944 (14th AF) Several aircraft are destroyed in battles over Kai Tek Airfield

LT: On Jan 16,1945 over 300 Allied Aircraft raided HK  lasting from 0900 to 1800hrs. A couple of large armed junks off Kai Tak were damaged or sunk.
On Jan  26 1945 during an Allied air raid [targeting various locations] Kai Tak airport was attacked, severely damaging the runway as well as destroying four aircraft.

IDJ: has found the following information about American bombing missions on Kai Tak airport during the war
March 28, 1945 (14th AF) Fighter-bombers hit areas around Kai Tek Airfield
March 29, 1945 (14th AF) Fighter-bombers hit Kai Tek Airfield.

http://www.pacificwrecks.com/airfields/china/kaitak/missions-kaitak.html

Kowloon – Canton Railway

In February 1942, train services were partially resumed. Not until two months later could people have access to Shenzhen. The Shenzhen-Guangzhou line was finished on the 8th January 1944 but was for military purposes only. Common people could not use the service.

On the 10th June in the same year, people could take the train from Shenzhen to Cheung Muk Tau. There were two services a day.

[By 1944] because of a shortage of fuel, there was only one train service on alternate days going to and from Kowloon and the New Territories. In addition, services were restricted to people who had “official needs” and with “written proof from relevant authorities” or people holding a “train pass”, who were then allowed to purchase tickets.

The fares were greatly increased. In 1942, the third class fare for a Tsim Sha Tsui – Fanling trip jumped from 1.40 Yen t0 114 Yen (ie HK$456). (Cheng 2009)

ER: BAAG Report KWIZ #85, 9.2.45.

“Railway:  Surplus seats, if any, on trains going from Tsimshatsui to Fanling are again available to the public.  Those desiring to go further than Fanling must have travelling permits and departure permits
(BAAG comment:  The railway was reserved for military traffic in mid-1944.)

The fares of the Kowloon-Canton Railway have been revised as follows:
From Tsimshatsui to Shatin-Y2.20.   From Tsimshatsui to Taipo – Y4.00.   From Tsimshatsui to Taipo Market – Y4.40.   From Tsimshatsui to Fanling – Y5.40.
Each passenger is limited to about 20 catties of baggage per trip.”

IDJ sent in the following self-explanatory report:
The following has been extracted and slightly edited from the technical magazine of the Royal Air Force Airfield Construction Service who comprised the majority of the personnel in ‘Shield Force’ who were the first to arrive in Hong Kong after the Japanese surrender. The article is dated March 1946, but relates to events in September 1945.

The general neglect extended to the Canton—Kowloon Railway, a most important communications link, and before even a limited start on the rehabilitation could be made, an engine and rolling stock had to be over­hauled and renovated. As soon as this work was completed, reconnaissance’s were undertaken which penetrated beyond the border. In this journey there are two tunnels, one being Beacon Hill 2,200 yards in length, and the party discovered that both had been mined by British Forces prior to the Japanese occupation. Severe damage was done to the tunnel linings, but temporary shoring had been effected by the Japanese. Consideration was given to the possibility of effecting further temporary repairs, but it was decided that a more comprehensive scheme was necessary and that in the meantime the service, though limited, must recommence as an operational necessity.

Pressing forward with the search for wood, a reconnaissance party in a re-commissioned engine of the Canton—Kowloon Railway penetrated into the New Territories, which were still occupied by armed Japanese. Fortunately, the enemy were quiescent, and large stocks of wood were discovered at Tai Po and Fan Ling, twenty and fifteen miles out respectively. An incidental on this trip was that a chit given by the Chinese Communist Army troops allowed the party over the border to collect a number of abandoned railway trucks. However, a fuel supply was assured, and electricity production was maintained to Kowloon, but the margin was so close that on one occasion the power house was within fifteen minutes of closing down completely when the utmost effort brought in new supplies.

A small supply of coal was located and a regular daily service was instituted on the 11th September 1945. This not only enabled fuel to be transported for CLP’s power station, but it also once again made transport available to the main supply sources for Kowloon of fresh vegetables. When Commando troops arrived at a later stage, the railway proved invaluable for transporting men and stores to their posts in the New Territories.

It was considered necessary to survey the line through to Canton. A first attempt was made by road, but, after penetrating some twenty miles into China, the reconnaissance party had to abandon the project as the enemy had wrecked the road, bridges were unsafe, and armed Japanese soldiers abounded. A second attempt was made by air, and this time the line was found to be clear through to Canton. Ultimately, trains were got through to Canton, and now Chinese troops (Nationalist) are travelling through to Kowloon for transfer to Shanghai. RAF personnel in the railway workshops originally serviced two engines and 18 trucks and later a further 12 trucks and 6 coaches have been made available.

Motor Vehicles

Extracted from Cheng (2006):-
“During the occupation. most motor vehicles were commandeered by the Japanese administration and sent to Japan. The administration explained that due to the needs of the military there were ‘naturally few remaining’ vehicles and ship for civilian use. A small number of trucks remained for hire by phone, at a rate of 25 military yen per hour.

All motorists were required to collect and annually renew their number plates. The location for collection were the Hong Kong Motor Vehicle Repair Workshop at no.5 Matheson Street in Kaogaku (Goose Neck Area) and the Kowloon Motor Vehicle Repair Workshop at no 749 Katori-dori (Nathan Road) in Kowloon. New number plates had to be attached to the vehicle using an aluminium clip, carried out a government designated location. In addition drivers had to pass written and Japanese tests held at St Paul’s Girls College on MacDonnell Road”

HF adds: The two paragraphs seems somewhat contradictory. “Most” appears to me to mean nearly all vehicles were set to Japan and yet the second paragraph seems to indicate  a fair amount of vehicles remained for the general public to use. I wonder if it is possible to get hold of the number of vehicles involved, and their type during the different years of the occupation. And how many were still in HK when it was liberated?

Peak Tram

Peak Trams Cheung Po Hung WW2

Cheng (2006)

Peak Tram Modern Tramway Journal c1989
Peak Tram
Modern Tramway Journal
c1989

IDJ

Rickshaws

Rickshaws, Cheng 2006

Cheng 2006

During the three-year-and-eight-month period of Hong Kong being in the hands of the Japanese, the severe lack of motor vehicles and constant traffic hold-ups made rickshaws the main means of transportation again. At that time there were over 500 on Hong Kong Island and over 300 in Kowloon.

When buses stopped running in 1943, 110 orders for rickshaws were placed to meet the demand. All rickshaws were under the authority of [the] Land Transportation Department, Government House, where the licence or kansatsu was issued. (Cheng 2009)

Sedan Chairs

Another form of hand-drawn vehicle was the sedan chair, which served as the uphill mode of transport on Hong Kong Island. There were a total of 55 sedan chairs early on in the occupation. A union for sedan-chair carriers was located in Wai Tak Lane in Central. (Cheng 2006)

In the 1920s various kinds of cars began to emerge. The sedan chair which should have been eliminated, became an important means of transport again during the Japanese occupation due to a severe lack of motor vehicles and the traffic being constantly being held up. The sedan chair was given another new Japanese name kago (literally translated as driving cage). Further, the Japanese military authorities…proposed that  sedan union called the Kago Union be formed. (Cheng 2009)

Ships

Shirogane Maru
KCM: I found a Japanese document (in 1939) about the small Shirogane Maru (a steamer running between HK, Macau, and Canton before the war and continued during the Japanese occupation). The large Shorgane Maru (3,000t) that was abandoned in the South Pacific in 1942 was another ship.
see: Shirogane Maru (Bosco Radio Corp) – mystery over its fate

Taxis

Cheng 2006

Cheng 2006

On the 1st October 1942, The Hong Kong Jidosha Umsho Kaisha resumed its taxi business. The company had twenty taxis serving on Hong Kong island and another twenty serving in Kowloon. Passengers had to telephone the company for service.

[By 1944] due to the shortage of petrol and appropriation of taxis by the authorities for military purposes, taxis became obsolete. (Cheung 2009) 

Trams

Trams WW2 Cheng Po Hung

Cheng (2006)

HF: After the Japanese Occupation  a very limited tram service was provided with only 12 tramcars in operation daily from Causeway Bay to Western Market.

YHT:  A tram ticket from the Japanese occupation overprinted with 10 sen. c1942.

Tram ticket image Japanese occupation

Tram ticket from the Japanese occupation Overprinted with 10 sen

In 1945 at the end of the Japanese Occupation, all 109 tramcars still remained, but only 15 were operational. By October 1945 40 tramcars were back in service.
The numbers don’t appear to add up. If only 12 trams were running post 1941 why were 15 still operating in 1945?

HF: Adapted from Arenz, (see sources below). After the surrender of HK the trams were returned to their depots and all European staff were interned. At first loss of transportation was not a concern for the Japanese since they preferred people to be less mobile. However, a month after the cease-fire they realized there was a need to move food and supplies around. Notices were put up to get tram staff back to work. Food was a major encouragement. The workers received three catties of rice (about 4lb) per day in lieu of pay. Wages were later paid in Japanese yen.

By 1942 only 60 trams out of the 109 were in service. As supplies dwindled it became more and more difficult to keep them going. Hong Kong Electric Company could not generate sufficient electricity and so for more four months the trams again stood idle. HK Electric started to burn hillside trees as fuel, enabling a very limited service to start up again. Only two routes were in operation. Causeway Bay to Whitty Street and Happy Valley to Whitty Street.

As Hong Kong’s utilities became increasingly run down, resources became more depleted. Tram fares skyrocketed and routes shrank. Since spare parts were impossible to get, the number of serviceable trams had decreased to 15 by the time the colony was reoccupied by British forces in August 1945.

The main tram depot had escaped direct bombing and no trams were actually destroyed during the occupation. However, though all 109 trams existed, only 15 could be operated and only 30 were capable of any kind of movement. All needed to be overhauled to some degree.

The tram workshop had been turned into a factory making hand grenades during the occupation. On the streets the tracks were clogged with rubble from shelling and lack of maintenance. Overhead wires were sagging or badly worn in some sections. Others were broken or missing.

Restoration began with the help of the Royal Navy which offered to get the electrical supply restored and in overhauling the trams. One member of the Royal Navy who assisted in this was Mr AE Jones who stayed on with the company after restoration, becoming Chief Engineer and retiring in 1966.

By October 1945, 40 trams were back in service, but running only in the centre of the city. They could only be run in daytime as there wee no light bulbs. By May 1946 there were 50 trams in service and by August 63. More would have been running, but it took months for spare parts to arrive from England.

Tramway Service, BAAG 1945 Report

WW2 1945 BAAG Report on conditions in Hong Kong

Tricycle, Goods

ER: This photo of a goods tricycle is taken from an exhibition of wartime Hongkong held at the Fung Ping Shan Museum some years ago.

.Tricyle, Goods wartime Hongkong at the Fung Ping Shan Museum E Ride

Tricycle Taxis

ER: A report on Tricycle Taxis 3 November 1944: “Each tricycle is only permitted to carry four passengers, according to a notice issued by the Bicycle and Tricycle Syndicate during the week-end. The official charges for these vehicles are Y1 per station during the daytime, and Y1.50 per station at night. Special licence boards, painted red and white with the Chinese inscription of “Hongkong Bicycle Syndicate”, were issued to members of the Syndicate last week, and are now attached to all vehicles engaged in the conveyance of passengers. Source: Hongkong News.”

Tugboats

LT: Reports…said most of the tug boats were made to operate between HK & Canton carrying troops in the main.

Wooden Carts

Fung Chi Ming adds:  Regarding wooden carts and “yan lik fan bo che” which is Cantonese (The Putonghua romanization, official language in China, is: “ren li fan bu che” (in Chinese: 人力帆布車), which literally means man-powered canvas carts).  This is mentioned in one of the wartime newspapers, details below.

When I did a research on the HK rickshaw years ago, I found a lot of wartime newspapers.  I kept many newspaper clippings.  In the “Around Town” column of an English-language Japanese-controlled newspaper in HK during World War II, known as Hongkong News (dated 9 September 1943) there is a statement that goes: “In order to fall into line with Government’s policy of saving fuel and gasoline, the Health Department has temporarily withdrawn the use of the ambulance. Canvas hand-carts have, however, been put into use and the public should not be much inconvenienced by this temporary measure.”  I didn’t carry out detailed research into the history of hand-carts in HK, but it seems that they were locally made in HK using local materials.  As you said, they seem such simple machines, much simpler than rickshaws; they were probably made by the rickshaw makers’ shops.

Hand cart during Japanese occupation

 Fung Chi Ming has found a photo , which may show a wooden hand-cart to the right of the right hand soldier’s  head (photo taken from Cheng 2006). It is not however, as CM admits, very distinct.
The caption to the photo reads, “Japanese soldiers and a tram passing Central Market on Higashowa-dori (Des Voeux Road Central), 1942.

This article was first posted on 24th August 2014.

Sources:

  1. Arenz B, Hong Kong Kong Trams  Pacific Century Publishers Ltd, 1998
  2. Bradshaw, Julia, Golden Prospect: Chinese on the West Coast of New Zealand, Shantytown, NZ, 2009
  3. Carroll, John M, A Concise History of Hong Kong, HKUP, 2007
  4. Cheng Po Hung, Hong Kong during the Japanese Occupation, University Museum and Art Gallery, The University of Hong Kong , 2006
  5. Cheng Po Hung, Early Hong Kong Transport, University Museum and Art Gallery, The University of Hong Kong, 2009
  6. Faure, David, Edited by, A Documentary History Of Hong Kong: Society,  HKUP, 1997
  7. Lindsay Ride Private Papers are deposited with www.awm.gov.au
  8. Snow, Philip, The Fall of Hong Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese Occuption, Yale University Press, 2003
  9. Tsang, Steve A Modern History of Hong Kong, HKUP, 2004
  10. Ward, Iain, Sui Geng: The Marine Police 1841-1950, HKUP, 1991
  11. Sham Wai Chi, The History of Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company, 1923 to the 1970s, MPhil Thesis, Lingnam University, 2007

Related Indhhk articles:

  1. Hong Kong Industry during World War Two 
  2. Hong Kong Industry during World War Two – Fishing, Food and Beverages, Tobacco

The Index contains many articles about Hong Kong during World War Two.

3 Comments

  • The 1945 BAAG Report fascinated me, as it mentioned that some cars were shipped to Japan during the Occupation. There is lack of accurate details on the actual number of cars in suspended service during the Occupation, probably owing to the connection breakdown due to bombing. I think the other proof to look back that period is the tram ticket, which I have added a couple of these in the new version of A&W book on HK trams.

    Best wishes,
    Joseph

  • Elizabeth Ride

    Joseph might like to know that tram fares in HK were reported in December 1942 as 3 cents to 6 cents (10 sen to 15 sen), and that since the devaluation of the HK dollar in July 1942 the only currency accepted on trams, buses and ferries was military yen.

    Regards, Elizabeth

  • Thanks Elizabeth,

    In addition to those overprinted tickets, the army had self-printed two version of tickets, first-class and third-class without fares.

    Best wishes,
    Joseph

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